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03/01/2012

Concluding Sentence

Filed under: Extra — anlactunay @ 7:03 AM

Concluding Sentence
A concluding sentence serves two purposes:
1. It signals the end of the paragraph.
2. It leaves the reader with the most important ideas to remember. It can do this in two ways:
• By summarizing the main points of the paragraph
OR
• By repeating the topic sentence in different words

   Concluding sentences are customary for stand-alone paragraphs. However, paragraphs that are parts of a longer piece of writing usually do NOT need concluding sentences.

   A paragraph does not always need a concluding sentence. For single paragraphs, especially long ones, a concluding sentence is helpful to the reader because it is a reminder of the important points. However, a concluding sentence is not needed for every paragraph in a multiparagraph essay.
   You may want to begin your concluding sentence with one of the signals in the list on page 14. You may also end a paragraph without a formal signal or perhaps by using an expression like those cited below.

End-of-Paragraph Signals Followed by a COMMA
   Finally, Lastly,
   In brief, Therefore,
   In conclusion, Thus,
   Indeed, To sum up,
   In short,

End-of-Paragraph Signals NOT FOLLOWED BY A COMMA
   The evidence suggests that…
   There can be no doubt that…
   These examples show that…
   We can see that…

Notes
1. Many writing teachers think IN CONCLUSION and IN SUMMARY are overused and so will not want you to use them.
2. Do not use the phrase AT LAST as an end-of-paragraph signal. AT LAST means “AT THE END OF A LONG PERIOD OF TIME,” as in this sentence: At last, you’ve come home.

MODEL
   GREETING CARDS
   Have you noticed how many different kinds of greeting cards you can buy these days? In the old days, the local drugstore had one rack displaying maybe five or six basic kinds of cards. You could walk into the store and choose an appropriate card in five minutes or less. Nowadays, however, the display space for greeting cards is as big as a soccer field, and it may take an hour or two to hunt down exactly the right card with exactly the right message. There are at least 30 categories of birthday cards alone: birthday cards for different ages, from different ages, for different relatives, from different relatives, for different genders, from different genders, from a couple, from the office, for dog owners, for cat owners, and so on. There are cards for getting a job, for retiring from a job, for acquiring a pet, for losing a pet, for becoming engaged, for breaking up. There are also greeting cards to send for no reason—”Thinking of you” or “Just because” cards. The newest type of card is the “encouragement card.” An encouragement card offers comforting thoughts and helpful advice to someone who is sad or distressed in these troubled times.
   IN SHORT, THERE IS NOW A GREETING CARD FOR EVERY POSSIBLE LIFE EVENT AND FOR A FEW NONEVENTS AS WELL.

   A HAWAIIAN LEGEND
   NATIVE PEOPLE CREATE LEGENDS TO EXPLAIN UNUSUAL PHENOMENA IN THEIR ENVIRONMENT.
   A legend from the Hawaiian island of Kauai explains how the naupaka flower, a flower that grows on beaches there, got its unusual shape. The flower looks like half a small daisy—there are petals on one side only. The legend says that the marriage of two young lovers on the island was opposed by both sets of parents. The parents found the couple together on a beach one day, and to prevent them from being together, one of the families moved to the mountains, separating the young couple forever. As a result, the naupaka flower separated into two halves; one half moved to the mountains, and the other half stayed near the beach.
   THIS STORY IS A GOOD EXAMPLE OF A LEGEND INVENTED BY NATIVE PEOPLE TO INTERPRET THE WORLD AROUND THEM.

Note: NEVER INTRODUCE A NEW IDEA in the concluding sentence.
   In conclusion, we now have more variety of greeting cards to choose from, but they are also BECOMING VERY EXPENSIVE. (This is a new idea.)
   In conclusion, there are many OTHER LEGENDS like this one in Hawaii. (This is a new idea.)

These are the important points covered in this chapter:
1. A good topic sentence
• is a complete sentence with a subject, a verb, and a controlling idea.
• is neither too general nor too specific. It clearly states the main idea of
the paragraph but does not include specific details.
• is usually the first sentence in the paragraph.

2. Good supporting sentences
• explain or prove the topic sentence.
• are specific and factual.
• can be examples, statistics, or quotations.

3. A good concluding sentence
• signals the end of the paragraph.
• summarizes the important points briefly or restates the topic sentence in different words.

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